CVP= Central Venous Pressure
Normal level = 0 to 5 cm H2o at sternal angel or 5 to 15 cm H2o at mid axilla line
Used for :
1- Measurement of cvp .
2- Indicator of heart effectiveness as a pump .
3- Circulating blood volume .
4- Patient's respons to treatment .
5- Diagnosis e.g evidence of underlying cardiac pathology such as ((Heart Failure)) .
6- Fluids adminstration .
Types : Single or multi lumen catheter .
Sites of catheter :
1- Subclavian .
2- Jugular internal or external .
3- femoral .
4- Median basilic vien .
5- Bracheal vien.
1- Pnuemo or hemopnuemothorax caused by puncture of lung .
2- Cardiac tamponade caused by puncture of heart .
3- Cardiac dysrhythmia from over inseration of catheter to right atrium .
4- Misplacmen .
5- Infection .
6- Air embolism .
7- Abnormal cardiac rhythms due ro rapid cold infusion .
8- Hemorrhage .